Tabled in conjunction with a Ministerial Statement
on 12 May 2011
The Government and I are committed to providing regular reports and updates on Afghanistan, including to the Parliament.
I last reported to the Parliament on 23 March, which followed my attendance at the meeting of NATO and International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) Defence Ministers in Brussels on 10 and 11 March.
My report on this occasion follows my recent visit to Afghanistan with the Chief of the Defence Force, Air Chief Marshal Angus Houston, to commemorate Anzac Day with our troops deployed in Uruzgan Province.
I also visited Kabul to speak to Afghan and ISAF partners.
Why we are there
Australia’s fundamental goal is to prevent Afghanistan from again being used by terrorists to plan and train for attacks on innocent civilians, including Australians in our own region and beyond.
To achieve that goal we must help prepare the Afghan Government to take lead responsibility for providing security for the Afghan people.
We must stabilise the security situation and mentor and train the Afghan security forces.
It is the first time I have returned from a visit to Afghanistan with some cautious optimism that we are making progress on the security front.
I have previously reported my view that we have been making progress, but optimism is a word I have rarely if ever used with respect to Afghanistan.
ISAF and Afghan security forces have had a good winter campaign.
As noted in the latest United States (US) Defense report to Congress on “Progress in Afghanistan”, released on 29 April, the Taliban’s momentum has been halted and much of their tactical infrastructure and popular support removed.
Key insurgent safe havens have been eliminated and many insurgent leaders have been captured or killed.
Last year’s surge of 40,000 US and ISAF troops has been widely reported.
However, less well appreciated is the surge of 80,000 in the Afghan National Security Forces over the same period.
Indeed, Afghan security force growth is ahead of its growth target, with its ranks swelling to close to 300,000.
ISAF is now able to shift its focus from simply growing the size of the force to improving the quality and specialist capacities of the Afghan forces, such as artillery, where Australia is leading the training effort.
As a result of sustained ISAF and Afghan offensive operations, the Taliban has lost its clear home ground advantage in key terrain in the South – the central Helmand River Valley and Kandahar.
Cache finds have increased significantly, narcotics interdictions are up and there has been some success in interdicting the movement of Taliban forces and supplies from Pakistan tribal areas across the border into Afghanistan.
Special Forces operations continue to successfully capture or kill Taliban leaders and demoralise those who remain.
Progress in Uruzgan
Progress is also being made in Uruzgan Province.
In Uruzgan Province, ISAF and Afghan forces have extended security to areas previously controlled by the Taliban - from the Tarin Kot bowl to the Mirabad Valley in the east, Deh Rawud in the west, and north through the Baluchi Valey into Chora.
During my recent visit to Afghanistan I visited Australian troops at Forward Operating Base Mirwais in the Chora Valley, to the north east of Tarin Kot. A group of young Diggers told me that over the seven months of their deployment, the local Afghans were now more supportive of the combined efforts of Afghan and ADF troops to bring security to the valley.
During my previous visit to Afghanistan in September 2010 I visited Patrol Base Razaq in the Deh Rawud district.
In March, Australian soldiers and the Afghan National Army opened a new patrol base – Patrol Base Mohammed – near the village of Heydar on the eastern edge of the Mirabad Valley.
A successful six week security operation facilitated the construction of the patrol base on an important insurgent infiltration route by Afghan National Army engineers under Australian guidance.
Insurgent activity in the area had previously denied the Afghan people access to important government services and infrastructure development.
The new patrol base will allow the expansion of security and governance into the area.
More recently, Operation TIGER’S AVALANCHE aimed to clear insurgents from the Kamisan Valley region of northern Uruzgan. The Operation was conducted over 11 days from mid-April onwards and discovered 39 caches of weapons and ammunition, including more than 2400 rounds of ammunition, 33 rocket-propelled-grenade warheads, 11 grenades, explosives, IED making components, six radios and opium resin.
I have often said that Australia is the tenth largest troop contributor in Afghanistan with around 1550 personnel in Afghanistan.
The primary focus of our mission in Uruzgan Province is to train the 4th Brigade of the Afghan National Army (ANA) to the level where it is able to take the lead for security in the Province.
The vast bulk of Australian Defence Force personnel in Afghanistan are deployed in Uruzgan.
Other personnel are based in Kabul, at Australia’s own national Headquarters and also embedded in ISAF Headquarters. Further ADF personnel are based in Kandahar supporting helicopter, reconnaissance and ISAF Headquarters operations.
Australia is also the third largest contributor of Special Forces in Afghanistan with personnel deployed to the Special Operations Task Group based in Tarin Kot.
The mission of our Special Forces is to target and disrupt insurgent networks in and around Uruzgan Province. As my predecessor Minister Faulkner has previously indicated publicly, from time to time our Special Forces are authorised to operate in adjoining provinces, such as Daykundi, Ghazni and Zabul, on operations that have security benefits in Uruzgan Province.
Our Special Forces also contribute to broader ISAF operations which have implications for Uruzgan.
Operation OMID 1390, ISAF’s main country-wide effort into 2012, will see our Special Forces continue to maintain pressure on insurgent leadership in Uruzgan, and the nearby areas of northern Kandahar and northern Helmand, which directly affect Uruzgan.
The operations of our Special Forces and their Afghan partners are currently focused on targeting insurgent networks known to be operating in Uruzgan Province and along key access routes into the Province and region, to disrupt insurgent fighting preparations in Uruzgan.
These operations continue to help provide improved security to Uruzgan Province through the removal of insurgent leaders in the months leading up to the northern summer ‘fighting season’.
During operations conducted in March and April, Special Forces soldiers and their Afghan partners effectively dismantled a provincial level insurgent cell operating in western Uruzgan and significantly curtailed the command and control of two district-level cells operating elsewhere in the Province. Partnered operations over this period killed or captured over a dozen insurgent leaders, taking them off the battlefield.
The improved security situation resulting from these operations has permitted the Afghan police to establish a stronger presence in remote areas of Uruzgan province, and for the Mentoring Task Force to perform their task of training the Afghan National Army 4th Brigade under a reduced threat from insurgent interference.
This security improvement has allowed the civilian-led Provincial Reconstruction Team to increase its efforts to build the Afghan Government’s capacity to deliver basic services and provide economic opportunities to its people.
It has also allowed the Provincial Reconstruction Team to extend their reach into areas of Uruzgan not contemplatable last year.
Artillery Detachment and Training
The ADF is also contributing to broader ISAF efforts across Afghanistan.
In April, the Army concluded its unique attachment of artillerymen to British operations in Helmand Province. Fifteen gunners from the Brisbane-based unit, the 1st Field Regiment have completed their attachment to the British 7th Parachute, Royal Horse Artillery (7 Para RHA) and operated from a patrol base at Lashkar Gah Durai, in northern Helmand Province.
While the security situation in Helmand Province has become more stable, during an early stage in their deployment, at a Forward Operating Base in Helmand Province, the Australian and British position was attacked by insurgents with rocket propelled grenade launchers and small arms. The men were forced to defend their position by using the 105 mm light gun in a direct fire role, a rarely used technique for artillery.
The first Royal Australian Artillery contingent deployed to southern Afghanistan in March 2008, having conducted training in the United Kingdom for six months prior to joining Operation HERRICK. The first contingent, from the Darwin-based 8/12 Medium Regiment, was the first of Artillerymen to deploy in that role since the Vietnam War. Three Australian Artillery Regiments have now each provided two deployments to southern Afghanistan.
The British 105mm L118 light guns provide indirect fire support to troops on the ground many kilometres away. Troops can call for offensive support to provide additional fire power when in contact with the enemy and often request illumination rounds to be fired to provide vision at night and to deter the enemy.
The ANA Artillery Training School in Kabul has reached an important milestone with its first graduates joining Afghan and ISAF combat elements in Kandahar Province.
The school, mentored by the Australian led Artillery Training School-Kabul, prepares Afghan soldiers to become skilled artillerymen and is an important step towards Afghan security forces taking full responsibility for security in the coming years.
Australia currently has 20 artillery trainers mentoring Afghan instructors at the school, which officially opened in October 2010.
While training includes live firing of the ANA’s D-30 Howitzer guns and rigorous gun drills, an important aspect of the school curriculum is to teach basic literacy and numeracy skills. These skills are key to professionalising the Afghan National Security Forces, and are highly valued by the students.
The ANA Artillery Training School was the first military school in Afghanistan to develop and run a literacy program for its students. At any one time, the school typically has 440 students attending one of nine different courses.
The goal for the school is to provide artillery training to approximately 2100 officers and soldiers over the next twelve months, which translates to approximately 23 artillery batteries for the ANA.
The CH47D “Chinook” helicopter Task Group from 5 Aviation Regiment returned to Australia in October 2010 for the Afghan winter months to undertake mandatory maintenance and a well earned break after completing over 737 flying hours and having moved in excess of 691,000 kilograms of supplies.
The CH-47D, “Chinook” helicopter is an aircraft with a lift capability of 12,000 kilograms, allowing it to counter aircraft performance issues sometimes encountered in mountainous terrain and landing zones at high elevations.
Since their first deployment in 2006, the Australian Chinooks have been highly valued on the battlefield and are well suited to operations in Afghanistan’s traditionally harsh environment.
The Australian Defence Force’s Chinook heavy lift helicopters have returned to Afghanistan to support International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) operations for 2011. The Rotary Wing Group commenced full operational duties in April.
Now back in Kandahar, Australian Chinooks are embedded with the United States Army’s 159th Combat Aviation Brigade and have conducted trial missions and maintenance to ensure the helicopters and crew are well prepared for the Afghan summer ahead.
New US, NATO and ISAF Leadership
Key US, NATO and ISAF leaders will change in the period ahead.
Lieutenant General John Allen has been nominated to assume Command of ISAF from General David Petraeus.
Ambassador Ryan Crocker has been nominated to take over as US Ambassador to Afghanistan from Ambassador John Eikenberry.
Ambassador Simon Gass has become the NATO Senior Civilian Representative.
His predecessor, Ambassador Mark Sedwill has become the United Kingdom’s Special Representative for Afghanistan and Pakistan and Ambassador Marc Grossman has taken over the same role for the United States.
Each and every one of these fine public servants from the United States and United Kingdom are good friends of Australia and Australia has every confidence in their ability to lead the international effort in Afghanistan.
Despite recent progress, ISAF continues to face some significant challenges in 2011.
We need to consolidate security progress and make transition work.
In the coming months, we expect the Taliban to sorely test ISAF and Afghan forces in Uruzgan.
ISAF and Afghan security forces have gained the military initiative and the Taliban is changing tactics as a result.
The Taliban will attempt to undermine the confidence of the Afghans, as well as the domestic audiences of troop contributing countries.
We can expect strikes against ISAF forces and civilians alike.
We can expect high profile, highly propaganda-based suicide attacks.
We have seen this with the assassination of the Kandahar Police Chief, and the attack upon the Ministry of Defence in Kabul and the more recent attack on the Kandahar Governor’s office.
We must steel ourselves for further attacks.
Australia is confident that we are on track for a transition of security responsibility to the Afghan security forces in Uruzgan in the 2013-14 timeframe.
The conversations I had in Afghanistan recently with the Commander of ISAF Joint Command, Lieutenant General Rodriguez lead to the same conclusion so far as the rest of the country is concerned.
We very much welcome the fact that in March President Karzai announced transition would soon begin in the first tranche of seven provinces and districts.
The Taliban will try to undermine our confidence in the security of areas undergoing transition.
Patience will be necessary. As the Prime Minister has said there is no point in transitioning out early, just to transition back in again.
The United States has indicated that it will announce a drawdown in the middle of this year.
The United States military and administration is still working through the detail of that drawdown and is yet to make an announcement.
Ahead of that announcement, I do say, that as a general proposition, there is no inconsistency between the transition of security responsibility by the end of 2014 and a United States drawdown starting in mid-2011.
The type of troops the United States will draw down will also be a consideration. For example, the United States has a number of staff in Afghanistan who were deployed to support the surge some 12 months ago.
As we know from our own experience in Uruzgan, as circumstances change, resources are able to be allocated differently.
That said it is best to wait until President Obama and the administration announce the detail of the drawdown in the middle of this year.
As far as Australia is concerned, we have on average 1550 troops in Afghanistan. That has been the case since April 2009, when this Government increased our troop numbers from an average of 1100 troops.
I am confident that over the next couple of years, sometime between now and the end of 2014, we will effect a transition to Afghan-led responsibility for security in Uruzgan.
The Australian presence will be in Uruzgan in its current formation until we have done the training and mentoring and security transition job and thereafter we expect to be in the Province in some form, such as Special Forces, security over-watch, capacity building, institution building, or niche training roles.
We need over time to work through the details of that presence, not just with our ISAF partners in Uruzgan, but more generally with our partners in Afghanistan.
Development and Governance in Uruzgan
During my recent visit to Afghanistan I met the new Uruzgan Governor Shirzad in Kabul.
I first met Governor Shirzad in Canberra in November 2008 during a visit by a Afghan Parliamentary delegation sponsored by the United Nations Development Program.
My meeting with Governor Shirzad underscored the importance of development and governance for sustaining progress.
On 17 April, Governor Shirzad presented the 2011 Uruzgan Provincial Development Plan in Kabul.
The plan was developed through consultation with village and district councils, line ministries and international stakeholders, and articulates development priorities for the province for the next 12 months.
It includes 385 projects, requiring funding of around US$250 million, and requires the approval of the Afghan Ministry of Economy.
The plan is a first for Uruzgan and Governor Shirzad is to be commended for his efforts.
In my discussions with him he said his priorities for the Province were education and roads, and to fill key civil service posts.
I reinforced these points in my meetings in Kabul with Defence Minister Wardak, Interior Minister Khan, Foreign Minister Rassoul, Transition Coordinator Dr Ghani, and Reconciliation and Reintegration Minister Stanekzai.
I stressed to my Afghan counterparts that the single greatest contribution that could be made to Uruzgan at this point in time is to support Governor Shirzad’s efforts to improve the social and economic opportunities of Afghan families.
Reconciliation and Reintegration
Our military strategy and effort alone will not achieve our mission in Afghanistan. We must continue to support the political strategy.
Australia strongly supports Afghan-led reconciliation and reintegration efforts where insurgents are encouraged to lay down their weapons, renounce terrorism and abide by the Afghan constitution.
We are seeing positive signs in Uruzgan.
On 27 March, Governor Shirzad hosted delegates of the Afghan Peace and Reintegration Shura, drawing citizens from the districts of Tarin Kot, Chora, Deh Rawud, Shahid-e Hassas, Khas Uruzgan and Gizab, along with representatives from Kabul.
At the conclusion of the Shura, 45 former insurgents presented themselves to Governor Shirzad as reintegration candidates. They are now working with government and ISAF agencies to reintegrate back into their communities and participate in community recovery programs.
We have also seen some progress at the national level.
On 16 April a high level delegation from Pakistan, including Pakistani Prime Minister Gilani, Chief of Army Staff Kayani and the Head of the Intelligence Service Pasha , visited Kabul to meet their Afghan counterparts.
For the first time the combined civilian and military leadership of Pakistan sat down with their Afghan colleagues to discuss political settlement in Afghanistan and the role of Afghanistan’s neighbours in supporting this process.
While I do not overstate the progress that has been made, this is an important step forward.
The solution in Afghanistan can not be purely a military one, it must involve a political settlement with the support of Afghanistan’s neighbours.
Support for our troops
This week’s Budget showed that total funding of $1.2 billion is committed to operations in Afghanistan and the wider Middle East for the Financial Year 2011-12.
As well, the Government is continuing its investment in the package of enhanced force protection capabilities for our troops in Afghanistan.
Over the period 2009-10 to 2012-13, $1.6 billion will be invested for these enhanced measures for force protection.
This includes $480 million of expenditure in 2011-12.
Our forces in Afghanistan are performing extremely well in dangerous circumstances on a daily basis and their support and protection is, rightly, our highest priority.
During my recent visit, ADF Commanders in Uruzgan reported that the Counter Rocket Artillery and Mortar (C-RAM) Sense and Warn system is working well. The C-RAM provides vital warning of impending rocket attacks and mortar attacks, providing precious seconds for our people to take cover, rather than being exposed in the open.
This follows on from the Force Protection Review effected by my predecessor Minister Faulkner and underlines the commitment to provide our troops with the best available equipment.
Of the 48 recommendations made by the Review, 41 are now complete or on track. They include enhanced counter IED measures, better armour and heavier calibre weapons for our Bushmasters, the placement of medics with each platoon operating in Afghanistan and the introduction of 1000 sets of lighter combat armour.
The new C-RAM capability follows the delivery of the first batch of the new, lighter Tiered Body Armour System now rolling off the production line in Bendigo.
The ADF plans to have the next Mentoring Task Force equipped with this armour when it deploys to Afghanistan later this year.
The new Multicam combat uniform will also be available to all troops operating outside the wire in the first half of this year.
More Bushmasters for Afghanistan
As well, the Government has approved the purchase of 101 Bushmaster protected mobility vehicles to support operations in Afghanistan.
The Bushmaster has proven to be a most effective combat vehicle, providing Australian troops with protection against Improvised Explosive Devices.
It has unquestionably saved lives in Afghanistan.
The purchase provides for operational attrition. 31 Bushmasters have been damaged beyond repair in recent years and their replacement, together with a further 70 vehicles, will support current and future operations in Afghanistan.
During my recent visit to Uruzgan, I was also reassured by the resources available to assist our forces wounded in combat.
The United States’ aero-medical evacuation system is greatly admired by our soldiers. The prompt response of the US aircrews and their willingness to take enormous personal risk in recovering our wounded is greatly valued by Australia.
Rule of Law and the protection of civilians
The rule of law is an essential basis for international relations and for national security policy.
The Australian Defence Force (ADF) has built a reputation over the years for professionalism and compliance with the rule of law and rules of engagement.
We have prided ourselves on our high standards and we have a well regarded international reputation for doing so.
When, for example, there are incidents involving civilians, they are always investigated.
On 29 March, Defence advised publicly that a young boy had been injured during a contact between insurgents and a partnered Special Operations Task Group (SOTG) and Afghan National Police Provincial Response Company-Uruzgan patrol.
Members of the Special Operations Task Group and Provincial Response Company-Uruzgan were engaged with small arms fire by a group of approximately four insurgents who fired from a creek-line in the Deh Rafshan area on Sunday, 27 March 2011.
During the contact, one insurgent was killed in action. On follow-up, the partnered patrol found a local boy suffering from gun-shot injuries to the upper body.
The child was assessed as being in a critical condition and received immediate first aid before being aero medically evacuated to a medical facility at Tarin Kot. The child was then transferred to a military hospital in Kandahar for ongoing treatment.
The ADF moved the child’s father to be with him while he received treatment at ISAF medical facilities. The ADF also moved other members of the child’s family to be with him while he received treatment.
On 7 April, Defence further advised publicly that the Afghan boy had passed away as a result of complications arising from injuries sustained during the engagement.
Immediate medical assistance was provided to the child before he was aero medically evacuated to a medical facility in Tarin Kot and then to Kandahar.
Sadly the child’s condition continued to deteriorate and following consultation with medical staff, the child’s family made the decision to cease life support. The child’s family remained with him when he passed away on Saturday 2 April. The boy was 23 months old.
Australia deeply regrets any loss of innocent life or injuries to civilians.
The ADF continuously acts to reduce the risk of such incidents happening. At this stage, it is not known who caused the child’s injuries. A Defence Inquiry has begun into the incident.
I am aware of subsequent reports that the Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission has found that the adult male killed in the contact was a civilian.
Australia does not know at this stage whether the death of the child was caused by ADF action or by insurgent action.
As soon as the ADF became aware that the death of a child had occurred, a formal investigation was instituted, which always occurs.
The results of that inquiry will be made public when the investigation is completed.
During my visit to Uruzgan I again visited Australia’s purpose-built screening facility at Multinational Base-Tarin Kot where detainees captured by Australian forces are held for a limited time for screening.
Again an opportunity was given to show representatives of the Australian media this facility, reflecting Australia’s commitment to transparency with respect to these matters.
The facility is structured to ensure the humane treatment of detainees, consistent with Australian values and our domestic and international legal obligations.
Detainees are able to freely practice their religion, and are provided access to exercise, adequate food and water, suitable sleeping arrangements and other amenities.
The facility is also open to regular inspection by the International Committee of the Red Cross. The first such inspection took place in October 2010, with another taking place in March this year.
Once initial screening is complete, detainees are transferred either to Afghan or United States custody, or released if there is insufficient evidence to justify ongoing detention.
In the period 1 August 2010 to 8 May 2011, Australia apprehended 590 detainees. Of these, 81 have been transferred to Afghan authorities and 40 to US authorities. The remainder have been released following initial screening.
Since 1 August 2010, 15 allegations of mistreatment from 13 detainees have been made against the ADF. Thirteen of these allegations have been thoroughly investigated. They were found to have had no substance and were dismissed.
Two more recent allegations remain under review.
These allegations and the outcome of the comprehensive investigations are reported in full to the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) and appropriate humanitarian organisations.
Over the same period, from 1 August 2010 to 8 May 2011, I am advised the ADF have captured five people who were subsequently released, then recaptured. Four of the individuals in question were released as there was insufficient evidence to warrant their continued detention.
In the case of the fifth individual, the second time he was apprehended there was sufficient evidence to provide a conclusive link to the insurgency. In accordance with Australia’s detainee management framework, he was transferred to the Detention Facility in Parwan.
In my March report I updated the House on a number of related detainee matters.
I can advise that the Australian Defence Force Investigative Service (ADFIS) investigation into allegations of non-compliance with the management and administrative procedures for the processing of detainees at the ADF detainee screening facility is ongoing.
The CCTV system at the Initial Screening System is functioning and continuous footage is being recorded and archived.
Our detainee management approach to the management and treatment of juveniles has been updated to ensure there is clear guidance on the management of juveniles apprehended during the course of ADF operations.
The Government currently has three detainee management issues under consideration and I expect to make an announcement on them in due course.
The first issue is the appropriateness of the length of detention in the Australian Initial Screening Area to enable the possible collection of further information by Australia.
The second issue concerns contingency arrangements for the management of detainees captured outside of Uruzgan, for example Kandahar.
The third issue regards the current requirement for an initial detainee monitoring visit to occur within 72 hours after a detainee is transferred from the Australian Initial Screening Area to US or Afghan custody.
I will continue to provide regular public updates, including to the Parliament, on these detainee management issues.
Afghan National Security Forces issue
Not only is Australia committed to holding our own personnel to the highest standards on detainee management, but if ADF personnel become aware of concerns regarding the treatment of detainees by our ISAF or Afghan partners, Australia also treats this with the utmost seriousness.
In March, I advised that in early February Australian soldiers witnessed an incident that occurred during an Afghan detention operation in Uruzgan Province. We raised the matter with the Afghan Government and ISAF and asked that the matter be fully investigated. I have been advised subsequently that the matter has been investigated.
On 1 April, Australian soldiers witnessed a further Afghan detention incident in Uruzgan province. That incident has also been raised with the Afghan Government and through the ISAF chain of command and I have been advised that the matter is being investigated.
As well, I have discussed detainee management issues with my Afghan counterparts the Minister for Defence and the Minister for Interior.
They both acknowledge and understand fully the need to ensure the continued credibility and high regard of the Afghan National Security Forces and that this includes investigating allegations of detainee abuse or mistreatment when and where they may arise.
Sarpoza Prison Break
Assessment of the security impact of the 25 April Sarpoza prison break continues.
Prior to the break out, the Sarpoza prison housed a total of 1298 inmates, comprised of 730 inmates in the general prison population and 568 inmates in the National Security Holding Unit.
In the early morning of 25 April, 488 of the 568 prisoners held in the National Security Holding Unit escaped. Of the escapees, 475 were convicted insurgents and 13 were suspected insurgents awaiting trial.
The ADF’s initial assessment of the escapees indicates that none of the escapees were detainees that had been captured by ADF forces.
Following a review of available records, the ADF has identified that four detainees apprehended by the ADF prior to 1 August 2010 were reported to have been sent to Sarpoza Prison on 30 October 2010. Based on the available information, the ADF has concluded that these ADF apprehended detainees were not among the prisoners that escaped.
Records show that since 1 August 2010, one detainee apprehended by the ADF was subsequently transferred from the Afghan National Directorate of Security in Uruzgan to Sarpoza Prison on 30 October 2010. The detainee was subsequently released.
The number of escapees with ties to Uruzgan remains unclear, but initial indications are that the vast majority of escapees were related to Kandahar and not Uruzgan province. As such, I am advised that the direct security implications for Uruzgan are likely to be minimal if any.
Osama Bin Laden
The death of Osama Bin Laden is for a number of Australian families and for very many people in the United States a reminder of a terrible tragic personal event where loved ones were taken away in the blink of an eye.
It will provide closure in that respect.
While some might describe some reactions within the United States as triumphalism, we do need to understand the raw emotions that are there for a country, a people, and individual families.
Osama Bin Laden was directly responsible for terrible acts of violence against innocent people, and he inspired acts of violence by others.
Australia’s involvement in Afghanistan, under the continuing mandate of the United Nations, traces directly back to the 11th of September 2001, the day al-Qaeda killed over 3000 people from more than 90 countries, including our own, in its t